Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/11311
Título: Manuel Mafra (1831-1905) e as origens da cerâmica artística das Caldas da Rainha
Autor: Horta, Cristina Ramos e, 1951-
Orientador: Neto, Maria João Baptista, 1963-
Palavras-chave: Mafra, Manuel, 1831-1905
Cerâmica - Caldas da Rainha (Portugal) - séc.19
Teses de doutoramento - 2014
Data de Defesa: 2014
Resumo: Caldas da Rainha assistiu, em pleno século XIX, ao surgir de uma cerâmica com intenções nitidamente artísticas, num estilo marcado pela decoração com elementos da flora e da fauna aplicados em relevo, associado ao conhecimento e à emulação de correntes estéticas internacionais, inspiradas nas majólicas italianas e nas faianças neopalissistas do século XVI. Credita-se a Manuel Mafra (1831-1905), ser o introdutor desta cerâmica artística sui generis em Caldas, vindo a desenvolver uma obra notável com assinalável êxito, nacional e, sobretudo, internacional, possibilitada pelo seu génio e habilidade, pela especificidade da região em que se desenvolveu, bem como pelo apreço e apoio que recebeu da Casa Real. Não obstante ser um oleiro oriundo de um meio rural, Manuel Mafra desenvolveu um percurso profissional notável, recebeu o honroso título de Fornecedor Real e viu a sua obra guindada aos mais elevados patamares, adquirida para ornamentar os espaços dos palácios reais, Necessidades, Pena, e Vila Viçosa. A sua obra foi largamente exportada para países estrangeiros, e premiada nas Grandes Exposições Internacionais, desde 1867, na Exposição de Paris, com continuidade nos certames seguintes. A absorção de correntes estéticas internacionais por Manuel Mafra, e a sua coexistência com a tradição, marca esta produção, cuja identidade/alteridade se encontra ainda por analisar e fundamentar, quanto às suas origens e caracterização, constituindo um desafio tão difícil como irresistível. Conhecer a obra de Mafra, pressupõe a análise de outras obras cerâmicas, que embora afastadas temporalmente, convergem numa questão central, a ligação estilística entre a longínqua obra do autor francês do Renascimento, Bernard Palissy, o seu renascer na cerâmica naturalista /revivalista francesa e inglesa do século XIX, e a sua recepção e radicação em Portugal, na cerâmica caldense. Esta cerâmica, e a aceitação de que foi alvo, levantam questões fulcrais, como a análise da iconografia que a percorre, as fontes onde se inspira e, também, como reflexo do imaginário de uma sociedade, e do seu gosto. Permite desvendar, através da observação do seu gosto artístico, a mentalidade de uma elite portuguesa do século XIX, que, antes de se deleitar com as sossegadas e palpáveis paisagens das telas de Malhoa e com as naturezas vivas/mortas em louça de Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, se deixa fascinar, adquirindo as peças românticas e perturbadoras de um ceramista como Manuel Mafra. Obra muito apreciada, mas também alvo de fortes críticas por estudiosos portugueses, como Joaquim de Vasconcelos, defensor dos valores mais intrínsecos da arte portuguesa para os produtos da indústria, e rejeitando as imitações de modelos estrangeiros e antiquados. A obra de Mafra, se por um lado explica as origens da cerâmica artística caldense, por outro, traduz e permite perceber o conflito vivido na altura entre o implantar da industrialização e as questões levantadas por movimentos e autores que, seguindo directrizes inovadoras do Arts and Crafts e Aesthetic Movement, clamam pelo estudo do desenho, uso de um bom design e a aplicação das artes às indústrias que vão prevalecer nas relações manufactura/ indústria e arte da época, e culminar em expressões de modernidade como a Arte Nova e Art Déco.Caldas da Rainha in the mid nineteenth-century saw the emergence of a distinctive ceramic ware, intentionally embodied in artistic features, a style clearly marked by decorative elements of flora and fauna applied in high-relief, associated with knowledge and emulation of foreign aesthetic trends, inspired in the Italian majolicas and sixteenth-century neo-Palissy faiences. Manuel Mafra (1831-1905) is credited introducing this sui generis style in Caldas, creating an amazing amount of wares with enormous success, both at home and more remarkably abroad. This was made possible because of his talent and skill, combined with the region’s structural peculiarities, and the esteem and support he gained from the Royal House. Though born a potter in a rural environment, Manuel Mafra undertook a remarkable professional course, was granted the honorable title of Royal Supplier, saw his production reach the highest levels of acceptance, and acquired to ornament spaces in royal palaces, such as those of Necessidades, Pena and Vila Viçosa. His production was largely exported to foreign countries, and awarded relevant prizes in The Great International Expositions, beginning in 1867 in Paris, and in the succeeding exhibitions. Manuel Mafra’s absorption of foreign aesthetic styles, coexistence with tradition, marked his production, identity and alterity which are still to be fully analysed and substantiated with regard to origins and characterisation, as difficult as irresistible a challenge it may be. Getting to know Mafra’s artwork presupposes the comparative analysis of other ceramic productions which, though far apart in time, converge into a central question, that is the stylistic relationship between the distant work authored by French Renaissance artist, Bernard Palissy, its rebirth in the naturalist/revivalist French and English ceramic in the nineteenth century, together with its acceptance and putting down roots in Portugal by embodying Caldas’ ceramic. This ceramic ware and the acceptance it received raises central question issues, such as the iconography running through it, its inspiration sources, also as the imaginary of a society and its taste, permitting through the observation of its artistic taste the revelation of the nineteenth-century Portuguese elite mentality. A society that before indulging in the quiet and discernible sceneries of Malhoa’s canvas or Rafael Bodalo Pinheiro’s works embodying moving life/still life, falls fascinated by and buys romantic and perturbing artwork authored by a ceramist like Manuel Mafra. Works highly appreciated, but also strongly criticized by Portuguese scholars, such as Joaquim de Vasconcelos a defender of intrinsic values of Portuguese art in industrial products, rejecting perceived imitations of outmoded and foreign models. Mafra’s production, if on the one hand explains the origins of Caldas’ artistic ceramic, on the other hand translates and permits the understanding of the conflict between the implementation of industrialization and the questions arisen by movements and authors pursuing innovative directives of the Arts and Crafts e Aesthetic Movement, claiming for the study of drawing, the use of good design and the application of the arts in the industries that will prevail in the relation manufacture/industry and art at the time, culminating in modernity expressions like Art Nouveau and Art Déco.
Caldas da Rainha in the mid nineteenth-century saw the emergence of a distinctive ceramic ware, intentionally embodied in artistic features, a style clearly marked by decorative elements of flora and fauna applied in high-relief, associated with knowledge and emulation of foreign aesthetic trends, inspired in the Italian majolicas and sixteenth-century neo-Palissy faiences. Manuel Mafra (1831-1905) is credited introducing this sui generis style in Caldas, creating an amazing amount of wares with enormous success, both at home and more remarkably abroad. This was made possible because of his talent and skill, combined with the region’s structural peculiarities, and the esteem and support he gained from the Royal House. Though born a potter in a rural environment, Manuel Mafra undertook a remarkable professional course, was granted the honorable title of Royal Supplier, saw his production reach the highest levels of acceptance, and acquired to ornament spaces in royal palaces, such as those of Necessidades, Pena and Vila Viçosa. His production was largely exported to foreign countries, and awarded relevant prizes in The Great International Expositions, beginning in 1867 in Paris, and in the succeeding exhibitions. Manuel Mafra’s absorption of foreign aesthetic styles, coexistence with tradition, marked his production, identity and alterity which are still to be fully analysed and substantiated with regard to origins and characterisation, as difficult as irresistible a challenge it may be. Getting to know Mafra’s artwork presupposes the comparative analysis of other ceramic productions which, though far apart in time, converge into a central question, that is the stylistic relationship between the distant work authored by French Renaissance artist, Bernard Palissy, its rebirth in the naturalist/revivalist French and English ceramic in the nineteenth century, together with its acceptance and putting down roots in Portugal by embodying Caldas’ ceramic. This ceramic ware and the acceptance it received raises central question issues, such as the iconography running through it, its inspiration sources, also as the imaginary of a society and its taste, permitting through the observation of its artistic taste the revelation of the nineteenth-century Portuguese elite mentality. A society that before indulging in the quiet and discernible sceneries of Malhoa’s canvas or Rafael Bodalo Pinheiro’s works embodying moving life/still life, falls fascinated by and buys romantic and perturbing artwork authored by a ceramist like Manuel Mafra. Works highly appreciated, but also strongly criticized by Portuguese scholars, such as Joaquim de Vasconcelos a defender of intrinsic values of Portuguese art in industrial products, rejecting perceived imitations of outmoded and foreign models. Mafra’s production, if on the one hand explains the origins of Caldas’ artistic ceramic, on the other hand translates and permits the understanding of the conflict between the implementation of industrialization and the questions arisen by movements and authors pursuing innovative directives of the Arts and Crafts e Aesthetic Movement, claiming for the study of drawing, the use of good design and the application of the arts in the industries that will prevail in the relation manufacture/industry and art at the time, culminating in modernity expressions like Art Nouveau and Art Déco.
Descrição: Tese de doutoramento, História (História da Arte), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, 2014
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/11311
Aparece nas colecções:FL - Teses de Doutoramento

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