Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/11953
Título: A decisão administrativa electrónica emergência da regulação do procedimento administrativo electrónico
Autor: Machado, Cristina Maria da Silva Lopes e Navarro Machado
Orientador: Gomes, Carla Amado
Palavras-chave: Direito administrativo
Administração electrónica
Decisão
Procedimento administrativo
Administração pública
Discricionariedade
Informatização
Teses de mestrado - 2013
Data de Defesa: 2013
Resumo: A presente dissertação tem por objectivo constituir o mote para uma reflexão sobre algumas práticas correntes no direito administrativo real que podem reclamar a emergência da informatização da decisão administrativa, passando pela adequada automatização do próprio procedimento administrativo. Partindo da confirmação de que a lei continua a ser o legítimo repositório das permissões da actuação pública, como definido no período do Estado Liberal, chega-se hoje, porém, à constatação que o legislador predominante é o Governo, figurado na Administração Pública, que, por isso, é já entendida como um poder independente, sendo ela que, ao fim e ao cabo, pré-define o conteúdo das leis, ganhando uma outra liberdade de actuação, numa reminiscente miscigenação entre o absolutismo do monarca e a legalidade liberal. Esta confusão entre legislador e administrador parece favorecer uma actuação à margem da lei, que já era igualmente reconhecida no período liberal, e que não andará longe do actual estado de anomia na actuação da Administração Pública que, em tempos de crise, política, social ou económica, justifica, «em nome da salvação da pátria», a adopção de medidas, ditas, excepcionais, estendendo-se a ideia peregrina liberal muito para além do que hoje se conheceria por discricionariedade. Esse profético «Estado Administrativo» poderá vir, nesta época, a consolidar a nova forma de democracia, que, afinal, perpassou do Estado Liberal mercê do protagonismo do poder governamental na criação do direito, ficando por saber se os mecanismos de excepção criados para justificar a actuação pública, e que se desenvolvem sem uma regulação específica, associados a uma supremacia do poder executivo, poderá comprometer seriamente a salvaguarda dos direitos dos cidadãos na insuficiência ou deficiência de sindicabilidade dos actos que lhes sejam lesivos. Passando ao plano do direito administrativo real, verifica-se que, em muitos procedimentos, a decisão do órgão competente é tomada a partir de directrizes que determinam o sentido de interpretação e aplicação de regras jurídicas relevantes e ou as diligências e formalidades a desenvolver, restando,implementar e disciplinar, pela pedagogia da informática, essa nova cultura organizacional. Provavelmente, reacender-se-á a polémica sobre a codificação do procedimento, em que a possibilidade de informatização de normas procedimentais permitirá, também, repensar sobre as vantagens e inconvenientes de se fixarem regras sobre um modelo de procedimento ou sobre os requisitos a observar para que se tenha por legítima a decisão administrativa. Por outro lado, a automatização da decisão discricionária não é, certamente uma tarefa fácil, sabendo-se que a operatividade da aplicação informática pode obrigar à padronização da estrutura lógica do raciocínio específico da tomada de decisão. Mas as tecnologias de informação desenvolvem-se em fórmulas cada vez mais sofisticadas, favorecendo a conquista de espaços mais alargados dos domínios de uma Administração Pública que se arrepela pela falta de mecanismos e ferramentas que substituam, sobretudo, a carência de recursos humanos e a falta de tempo para se debruçar metodicamente sobre a avalancha de requerimentos, exposições, petições e reclamações que, quase diariamente, invadem as repartições de serviços públicos. A doutrina admite a reformulação necessária da actividade administrativa e do seu suporte organizacional, aceitando-se que a actividade administrativa informatizada não será, no essencial da juridicidade que a legitima, diferente da actividade convencional, pelo que as regras e princípios fundamentais que norteiam e justificam a segunda deverão estar presentes na primeira, até porque o interesse da Administração na informática tem, também, um cunho genético nas novas necessidades que afligem a sociedade civil. Aliás, se se aceita que é a própria Administração que determina o conteúdo do enunciado normativo, autovinculando e autolimitando a respectiva esfera de acção, pode, então, ser real a introdução no mundo do Direito de sistemas periciais especificamente jurídicos, que são capazes de reproduzir o pensamento humano e que deixam espaço à expressão da subjectividade do decisor, na busca de uma resposta para um problema jurídico, nomeadamente naqueles domínios da actuação pública em que poderá, já hoje, ser possível aadministrativa, do que na tentativa de disciplinar, e moralizar, a cultura organizacional, impondo algumas matrizes, com exigências dificilmente contornáveis ou corrosíveis por vícios ou hábitos incorrectos da Administração. É a oportunidade de uma revisão profunda do procedimento administrativo e da disciplina da tomada de decisão que, em nome da paz social e da realização efectiva do direito e da justiça, não poderá deixar de reflectir e interagir no modus operandi em curso, pondo cobro àquelas actuações informais que sobrepõem a anomia e a desordem jurídica à juridicidade própria do Estado de Direito democrático, na senda do ensinamento do Insigne PROFESSOR ALBERTO DOS REIS de que «mais vale uma solução tosca, que solução nenhuma».
This dissertation aims to be the motto for a reflection on some current practices in administrative law that can claim the actual emergence of the computerization of the administrative decision, through proper automation of the administrative procedure itself. Based upon the confirmation that the law remains the legitimate repository of permissions of public action, as defined in the period of the Liberal State, one arrives today, however, to the realization that the main legislator is the Government, figured in the Public Administration which therefore is now understood as an independent power - it is the Government after all that predefines the content of the laws, gaining another freedom of action, in a reminiscent blending of the absolutism of the monarchy and liberal legality. This confusion between legislator and administrator seems to favor acting outside the law - that was already recognized in the liberal period and is probably not far from the current state of anomie in the performance of Public Administration, which in times of crisis, political, social or economic, seems to use the justification, "for the salvation of the homeland", for the measures, said, exceptional, extending the liberal ideal far beyond what would, nowadays, be considered arbitrariness. This prophetic "Administrative State" can come to consolidate, at this particular timeframe, a new form of democracy, which ultimately prevailed from the Liberal State thanks to the leadership role of the government powers in creating the Law. It will always remain unknown, if the mechanisms created to justify an exception in public action, which were developed without a specific regulation and associated with a dominance of the executive (political) powers, can seriously compromise the safeguarding of citizens' rights in the insufficiency or deficiency of liquidators in acts harmful to them. Turning to the actual plan of administrative law, one verifies that in many administrative procedures, the decision of the competent organ is formed based upon guidelines that determine the sense of interpretation and application of the legal rules applicable and/or the steps and procedures to develop; in most cases, all that remains for the author of the act, at the bottom of the hierarchy, is a task of mere subsumption of the case to the standard advisees.Not belittling the intrinsic value of the method of pondering when facing the inevitable unknown side of life, it seems that the verification of the rationality of procedures, and therefore the legitimacy of administrative action, will result in the compliance with the parameters, assumptions and assumed of the above mentioned method alongside with the inherent subjectivity of the decision maker's opinion – who is not always the authentic author of the identified act - teleologically structured to complete a certain sense of decision, whatever it is. But the rationale, bastion of rationality and morality of the procedure, is in most cases, an illusion of the guaranteed, ranging from redundancy law and redundancy of doctrinal and jurisprudential citations, settling in a text incomprehensible to citizens, communication paradigm for the failure of legal discourse, where the decision maker - a succession of people - in fact, sailing to windward of his/her, well or ill founded, discretion. Rethinking the current model of administrative procedure is on the agenda of the legal community at a time that strongly appeals to bureaucracy reduction, through simplification, dematerialization and deformalization as some of the assumptions that will, allegedly, ensure the efficiency of the procedure, fulfilling the public interest with the safeguard of the guarantees of individuals. This is also the opportunity to realize what should be the dimension of a regulatory review of procedures defining what, beside the real face of administrative law, must be regulated and how, not only to prevent the biased reduction of procedures, but especially not to persist in the perversion of the trend of procedures now established, taking advantage of the opportunity to instill a new culture of public service, which in a sense, can be achieved through information technology and or computerization. It will then be this reflection that will set the order of the day, given the rapid and sophisticated evolution of computer systems and the urgent need for increased administrative modernization, to try and go beyond the role of management and archiving of documents, taking advantage of this mechanism to reformulate implement and discipline this new organizational culture, through the teaching of computing. Probably, the controversy over the encoding of the procedure will reignite; the possibility of computerizing procedural rules will also allow the rethinking of the advantages and disadvantages of establishing rules on a type of procedure or on the requirements to be observed in order to guarantee legitimacy to the administrative decision. On the other hand, the automation of discretion is certainly not an easy task, given that the operability of the software may require the standardization of the logical structure of reasoning specific decision making. But information technologies develop in ever more sophisticated formulas, thus favoring the achievement of wider spaces of the fields of public administration that suffers from the lack of mechanisms and tools to replace, especially the lack of human resources and lack of time to look methodically about the avalanche of petitions, exhibits, petitions and complaints almost daily raid the offices of public services. The doctrine allows for the necessary overhaul of its administrative activities and organizational support, being generally accepted that the computerized administrative work will not be, in the bulk of the juridical core that makes it legitimate, unlike the conventional activity, whereby the main rules and principles that guide and justify the second must be present at the first, because the Administration's interest in computers also has a genetic imprint on the new needs that plague society. In fact, if one accepts that the Administration itself is what determines the normative content of an utterance, self-bonding and self-limiting its scope, it can then be thought of as possible to introduced in the real world of law specifically legal expert systems, which are capable of reproducing human thought and expression that leave room for the subjectivity of the decision-maker in search of an answer to a legal problem, particularly in those areas of public action where it may already be possible to replace the human intelligence by artificial decision making originally discretionary. Recognizing, though, the fickleness of social life, subject of intervention of the Law, it is known that the cycles of change include still some stability, so there will always be a group of specific situations, even within the scope of discretionary decisions, that present a small range of options and may even be reduced to a zero mark, repeated in similar cases, which, like the acts originally bound, allows the standardization of solutions, also translatable into computer language. A paradigmatic case of this normalizing trend comprises the aforementioned guidelines informal that self-bond the author of the document to the uniform resolution of similar cases, with no problems in the adoption of binding acts, but also a possibility to be considered in discretionary acts, in which a previous screening allows for standardization of solutions, at least in cases similar low-discretion or discretion zero. It will still be a discretionary administrative decision, because it can and should be created and controlled by the competent administrative organs, using the same schemes of reasoning as those used in conventional procedure, and because it will be bound to the same limits and rationale that, in view of the realization of the Democratic State ruled by Law are the guides of administrative action on the track of rationality and justice. The arguments in defense of the guarantees of citizens which are pointed in the non-recommendation of automation can also stand for the opposite view, if we consider that the current administrative practice uses unregulated computerization of many procedures and even decision-making, which further themselves apart from the conventional procedures and the material legality of their material and, more worryingly, no specific legal control. Problems on the attribution of the act to the appropriate law enforcement agent and the accountability for the inaccuracy of the software applications already in operation, are more acute in the absence of a regulation of the practice and it contaminates almost every administrative activity, as well as trying to discipline and moralizing, organizational culture, imposing some matrices, with hardly manageable requirements for corrosive or incorrect habits or vices Administration. It's an opportunity to overhaul the administrative procedure and the discipline of decision-making that, on behalf of social peace and the effective implementation of law and justice, can not but reflect and interact in the current modus operandi, putting an end to those informal performances that overlap the legal anarchy and disorder to the very legality of the democratic rule of law in the wake of the teaching of the remarkable PROFESSOR ALBERTO DOS REIS that "it is better to have a crude solution, than no solution at all."
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/11953
Designação: Mestrado em Direito Administrativo
Aparece nas colecções:FD - Dissertações de Mestrado

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