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Title: Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in health and disease
Author: Montez, Maria Teresa Andrade Santos Costa, 1979-
Advisor: Hansen, Klaus Linkenkaer-
Soares, Eduardo Ducla, 1944-
Keywords: Doença de Alzheimer
Engenharia biomédica
Teses de doutoramento - 2008
Defense Date: 2008
Abstract: Cognition relies on the integration of information processed in widely distributed brain regions. Neuronal oscillations are thought to play an important role in the supporting local and global coordination of neuronal activity. This study aimed at investigating the dynamics of the ongoing healthy brain activity and early changes observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) were used due to high temporal resolution of these techniques. In order to evaluate the functional connectivity in AD, a novel algorithm based on the concept of generalized synchronization was improved by defining the embedding parameters as a function of the frequency content of interest. The time-frequency synchronization likelihood (TF SL) revealed a loss of fronto-temporal/parietal interactions in the lower alpha (8 10 Hz) oscillations measured by MEG that was not found with classical coherence. Further, long-range temporal (auto-) correlations (LRTC) in ongoing oscillations were assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on times scales from 1 25 seconds. Significant auto-correlations indicate a dependence of the underlying dynamical processes at certain time scales of separation, which may be viewed as a form of "physiological memory". We tested whether the DFA index could be related to the decline in cognitive memory in AD. Indeed, a significant decrease in the DFA exponents was observed in the alpha band (6 13 Hz) over temporo-parietal regions in the patients compared with the age-matched healthy control subjects. Finally, the mean level of SL of EEG signals was found to be significantly decreased in the AD patients in the beta (13 30 Hz) and in the upper alpha (10 13 Hz) and the DFA exponents computed as a measure of the temporal structure of SL time series were larger for the patients than for subjects with subjective memory complaint. The results obtained indicate that the study of spatio-temporal dynamics of resting-state EEG/MEG brain activity provides valuable information about the AD pathophysiology, which potentially could be developed into clinically useful indices for assessing progression of AD or response to medication.
Description: Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008
Appears in Collections:FC - Teses de Doutoramento

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