Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/17613
Título: Mass-wasting episodes in the geological evolution of the Azores islands : timing, recurrence, mechanisms and consequence
Autor: Costa, Ana Cristina Goulart da, 1988-
Orientador: Marques, Fernando Manuel O. G., 1954-
Hildenbrand, Anthony
Palavras-chave: Vulcanismo - Ilhas - Oceano Atlântico
Ilha do Pico - (Arquipélago dos Açores, Portugal)
Ilha do Faial (Arquipélago dos Açores, Portugal)
Teses de doutoramento (co-tutela) - 2015
Data de Defesa: 2015
Resumo: Large-scale flank collapses are recurrent in the geological evolution of volcanic ocean islands. Such catastrophic episodes of destabilization can be voluminous and generate large tsunamis, which may cause considerable damage and thus represent extremely hazardous events. The Azores islands east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are located on the Eurasia(Eu)/Nubia(Nu) plate boundary, and therefore subject to structural control and seismic activity (historical events of magnitude up to ca. 7). However, prior to MEGAHazards Project (PTDC/CTE-GIX/108149/2008, funded by FCT, Portugal), large-scale flank collapses in the Azores were considered to be lacking, mainly due to the small dimension of the volcanic edifices. Here, we conclude unequivocally on the occurrence of such events in the Azores. The present PhD thesis addresses the evolution of the Pico-Faial steep volcanic ridge, which sits on a major normal fault associated with the Eu/Nu diffuse boundary, focusing especially on the large-scale flank failures in Pico Island. Based on high-resolution sub-aerial and submarine Digital Elevation Models, new structural and stratigraphic data, and highresolution K-Ar dating on separated volcanic groundmass, we: (1) constrain the volcano stratigraphy of Pico; (2) reconstruct the major phases of growth and destruction in Pico and Faial islands in the last 200 kyr; (3) reconstruct the ca. 125 kyr evolution of the currently active large-scale slump in the SE of Pico Island; (4) provide new structural data/interpretations regarding the scarp that sharply cuts the S flank of Pico Stratovolcano; (5) report on the occurrence of large-scale failures in the N and S flanks of the Pico Island between ca. 125 and 70 ka, which generated large submarine debris deposits; and (6) propose that the role of the Pico-Faial ridge as a structure accommodating part of the extension on the diffuse Nu/Eu boundary has been consolidated in the last ca. 125 kyr. Many factors favouring the development of such large-scale flank instabilities have been proposed in the literature, but their exact role and mutual contribution remain poorly understood. We here present an analytical solution for the cohesive Coulomb Critical Wedge theory applied to gravitational instabilities, and associated analogue simulations to test some structural implications of the model. We investigate the impact of several variables on the stability of volcanic flanks, including: wedge slope and dimensions, cohesion, internal friction along the basal detachment, and fluid overpressure. We conclude that: (1) the steepening of the volcanic flanks and basal detachment lead to a decrease in the fluid overpressure ratio (fluid overpressure divided by lithostatic pressure) necessary to produce failure. (2) The decrease of the stabilizing effect of cohesion with increasing depth of the basal detachment favours the occurrence of deep-seated large-scale gravitational destabilization in basal detachments deeper than ca. 2000-2500 m (in volcanic edifices necessarily higher than 2500 m). For shallower basal detachments, the overpressure ratios required to induce failure are comparatively larger. For shallower basal detachments, steeper flanks and stronger edifice materials, shallow failure parallel to the edifice flank surface is favoured, instead of deep-seated deformation. (3) With increasingly deeper basal detachments (possible in larger volcanic edifices), while the impact of cohesion diminishes, the relative importance of basal internal friction for the stability of the edifice increases. The investigation of the occurrence of large-scale mass-wasting in the Azores islands, and the modelling of the variables controlling the stability of the volcanic edifices are only at their first steps and will be further developed in the future.
Descrição: Tese de doutoramento (co-tutela), Geologia (Geodinâmica Interna), Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Faculté des Sciences D’Orsay-Université Paris-Sud, 2014
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/17613
Designação: Doutoramento em Geologia
Aparece nas colecções:FC - Teses de Doutoramento

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