Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/18199
Título: Adopting Different Teaching Systems. Data from the Portuguese Extraordinary Inspection of 1875
Autor: Silva, Carlos Manique da
Palavras-chave: Teaching systems
Portuguese extraordinary inspection of 1875
Pedagogical organization
Data: 2015
Editora: Marcelo Caruso
Citação: Silva, Carlos Manique da (2015). Adopting Different Teaching Systems. Data from the Portuguese Extraordinary Inspection of 1875. In Caruso, Marcelo (ed.), Classroom Struggle. Organizing Elementary School Teaching in the 19th Century (pp. 253-273). Frankfurt: Peter Lang
Resumo: At the turn of the 19th century, the time during which the establishment of the first national education systems in some European countries began and schooling became progressively a shared experience to all segments of the population, the unsolved problem of the effective teaching system for elementary schools became imperative. Particularly “the old techniques of individual learning and training came under scrutiny and became an object for consideration.” The urgent problem in mass teaching had to do with the proper execution of any kind of simultaneous teaching, by an adult or even by monitors, as the preferred form of ordering classrooms. Solving this challenge certainly required finding a rational pedagogical organization, something that would only happen over the 19th century. Thus, the progressive replacement of individual instruction – which remains, however, a central paradigm of reference to the classroom’s organization – by other more effective teaching modes largely took place in this century. It was a change closely related to the construction of the certified teaching profession. The effort to rationalize education and ‘scientific’ organization of teachers' work would eventually lead to the organizational model of the graded school in the late decades of this century. Its essence basically was the continuous effort for the constitution of school classes as homogeneous as possible. This process of changing mass teaching defined, then, a conception of school work which remains virtually unchanged until the present day – the so called grammar of schooling. Lined with the David Tyack’s and Larry Cuban’s work on the grammar of schooling, this contribution aims to draw attention to the way that teachers combined aspects of different experiences in a crucial period of transition in the organization of mass teaching towards a more systematized approach. That is to say that teachers reacted to this challenge of the different classroom management systems “by hybridizing them, blending the old and the new by selecting those parts that made their job more efficient or satisfying,” more than just doing a break between the “old” and the “new”. In the following, my central claim is that teachers adopted more suitable practices to their context. In this sense, the debate (and experiments) around the teaching modes – for the search of a more efficiently way of teaching larger groups before the acceptance of graded school – should be considered not only as a process of global diffusion and standardization of these models of classroom management, but also as a result of culture specific and situational diversification.
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/18199
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