Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/20328
Título: US Policy on European Integration during the GATT Kennedy Round Negotiations (1963–67): the last Hurrah of America's Europeanists
Autor: Coppolaro, Lucia, 1972-
Palavras-chave: GATT
Estados Unidos da América - Política externa
Data: 2011
Editora: Taylor and Francis
Citação: Coppolaro, L (2011). US Policy on European Integration during the GATT Kennedy Round Negotiations (1963–67): the last Hurrah of America's Europeanists. The International History Review, 33-3, 409-429
Resumo: This article illustrates US policy on European integration and the European Economic Community (EEC) by focusing on the General Agreement on Tarriff and Trade (GATT) Kennedy Round negotiations (1963–7). However underestimated in the history of international relations, GATT provides in fact an outstanding framework for analysing the foreign policy of its members. Whilst analyses of the Round per se already exist, no scholar thus far has focused on US policy towards European integration. Moreover, no previous author has utilised the European archives and has examined the stances of the EEC. This article shows that US support for European integration, which both Kennedy and Johnson followed at the behest of the ‘Europeanists’ in their respective administrations, conditioned the bargaining position of the United States in Geneva. The US negotiators tried to enhance US trade interests while at the same time attempting to encourage European regional integration. In so doing, the United States played a role in the strengthening of European regional integration by favouring the unity of the area. Moreover, contrary to previous accounts, this article shows that US negotiators were able to direct and move forward a complicated negotiation, showing Washington's leadership. The article concludes by showing that the Kennedy Round ended a period of about twenty years during which the United States acted to promote the unity of Western Europe. At the end of the 1960s, with the worsening of the US economic conditions, the tension in transatlantic relations over monetary and security issues, and the strength that the EEC demonstrated during the Kennedy Round, ‘the Europeanists’ were no longer able to prevail with their line in the internal discussions. This change became apparent when the Nixon administration shifted to a more detached and ambiguous policy towards European integration.
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/20328
DOI: 10.1080/07075332.2011.595170
ISSN: 0707-5332 (Print)
1949-6540 (Online)
Versão do Editor: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07075332.2011.595170
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