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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/3987

Title: Paradigmas diferencial e sistémico de investigação da inteligência humana : perspectivas sobre o lugar e o sentido do construto
Authors: Afonso, Maria João, 1959-
Advisor: Miranda, Maria José, 1944-
Keywords: Teses de doutoramento - 2007
Inteligência
Avaliação psicológica
Teoria sistémica
Issue Date: 2007
Abstract: O presente projecto de investigação pretendeu explorar o conceito de inteligência humana em três níveis de análise (ou perspectivas): epistemológico e metateórico; teórico; e metodológico. Seis paradigmas (Miranda,1986,2003) ou metáforas (Sternberg,1990) de investigação da inteligência humana – biológico, diferencial/geográfico, construtivista/epistemológico, informacional/computacional, sociológico e antropológico – são apresentados e comparados no quadro dos Loci da Inteligência Humana (Sternberg,1990). Os seus fundamentos epistemológicos e ontológicos são explorados tendo em vista enquadrar a análise das actuais tentativas de integração. O paradigma sistémico, uma destas tentativas de integração de distintos níveis de análise e explicação da cognição humana (Reuchlin,1999/2002), é caracterizado e discutido, e outras abordagens integrativas são também propostas. O “paradigma diferencial” e o “paradigma sistémico” são analisados mais pormenorizadamente, tomando por referência os contributos teóricos e metodológicos de dois autores de primeiro plano – David Wechsler e Robert Sternberg. As suas técnicas de avaliação – a WAIS-III e o STAT-R(H) – aplicadas em conjunto, após os respectivos estudos e aperfeiçoamentos metrológicos, permitiram estudar o ajustamento entre a estrutura empírica das variáveis e os mais importantes modelos conceptuais da inteligência. O modelo mais ajustado aos dados é o que representa uma estrutura hierárquica da inteligência, semelhante à proposta por Carroll (1993), não o que corresponde à Teoria Triárquica da Inteligência Humana (Sternberg,1985,1996). Esta conclusão legitima a discussão dos fundamentos epistemológicos, dos conceitos e das medidas que consubstanciam este modelo de Sternberg, bem como o questionamento do seu carácter sistémico. A abordagem dos sistemas dinâmicos e a Teoria da Vicariância (Reuchlin,1978) são introduzidas como modelos de referência para o estudo sistémico da inteligência humana, por possibilitarem uma verdadeira integração entre os níveis de análise individual (paradigmas biológico, diferencial e informacional) e contextual (paradigmas sociológico e antropológico) ao tomar por principal objecto o estudo do processo intra-individual de interacção indivíduoXcontexto, na perspectiva epigenética do desenvolvimento cognitivo (paradigma construtivista).
This research project aimed at exploring the concept of human intelligence on three levels of analysis (or perspectives): epistemological and metatheoretical; theoretical; and methodological. Six paradigms (Miranda,1986,2003) or metaphors (Sternberg,1990) for the study of human intelligence – biological, differential/geographic, constructivist/epistemological, informational/computational, sociological and anthropological – are described and compared in the framework of Loci of Human Intelligence (Sternberg,1990). Epistemological and ontological foundations are then explored in order to establish a common ground for the understanding of current efforts for integration. The systemic paradigm, one of those attempts to integrate different levels of analysis and explanation of human cognition (Reuchlin,1999/2002), is described and discussed, and some other potential approaches to integration are introduced. The “differential paradigm” and the “systemic paradigm” are subjected to a more detailed analysis based on the theoretical and methodological contributions from two representative authors – David Wechsler and Robert Sternberg. The assessment techniques WAIS-III and STAT-R(H) were administered together, after independent psychometric studies and metrological improvements, to examine the adjustment between the structure of the variables and the most important conceptual models of intelligence. The model that best fits the data is a hierarchical structure of intelligence, similar to the one proposed by Carroll (1993), not the model based on the Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence (Sternberg,1985,1996). This finding provides the background for the discussion of epistemological foundations, concepts and measurements of this model of intelligence, and for the questioning of its systemic nature. The dynamic systems approach and the Theory of Vicariance (Reuchlin,1978) are proposed as a promising framework for the systemic study of human intelligence, to enable a true integration of the individual (biological, differential, informational paradigms) and the contextual (sociological and anthropological paradigms) levels of analysis, taking as core object the study of intra-individual processes of individualXcontext interaction in an epigenetic perspective of cognitive development (constructivist paradigm).
Description: Tese de doutoramento em Psicologia (Psicologia Diferencial), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação, 2007
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/3987
Appears in Collections:FPCE - Teses de Doutoramento

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