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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/578

Title: Os engenheiros militares no planeamento das cidades : entre a restauração e D. João V, 1640-1750
Authors: Vala, Margarida, 1951-
Advisor: Serrão, Vítor, 1952-
Keywords: Arquitectura militar - Portugal - séc.17-18
Engenheiros militares - Portugal - séc.17-18
Planeamento urbano - Portugal - séc.17-18
Teses de doutoramento - 2008
Issue Date: 2007
Abstract: A crescente afirmação do Estado Moderno nos séculos XVII e XVIII nasce associada a teorias sobre a cidade fortificada. Nesse período, a cidade ideal dos humanistas fundamentada em critérios estéticos, transformou-se numa arma do poder central para controlar o Território. O desenvolvimento da arquitectura militar abaluartada, denominada Fortificação Moderna, enquadrou-se nesse contexto político procurando afirmar-se como ciência, e acompanhando passo a passo o avanço da balística. A matemática e a geometria prática serviram de base aos modelos defendidos pela engenharia militar, inseridos nas regras cartesianas que fundamentavam o discurso filosófico na época: a Teoria tinha que ser confirmada pela experiência e a Prática tinha que regulamentada pela Teoria. A proliferação de Tratados sobre a Fortificação Moderna revolucionou os conceitosurbanísticos, de tal forma que inúmeras cidades europeias sofreram grandesreformulações nas suas estruturas urbanas. A cidade fortificada, a Praça-Forte,cumpria um desígnio: a defesa do território envolvente à urbe mas enquadrada numa política geral de defesa do Estado. Dada a complexidade e extensão territorial das novas cinturas de muralhas foi estabelecido um novo limite intransponível, e as préexistências urbanas foram reestruturadas segundo uma lógica militar de funcionamento. O modelo teórico da Praça-Forte expressava o racionalismo crescente da Época Moderna e surgia relacionado a regras de Urbanismo. O conceito de modernidade prevalecia no Método para a aplicação desse modelo no terreno. No período da Restauração (1640-1668), os governantes portugueses sentiram necessidade de se inserir nesta nova ideologia política. O reconhecimento da soberania da monarquia portuguesa passaria naturalmente por duas vertentes: a diplomacia; e a defesa do território através da modernização das suas fortificações urbanas segundo as regras vigentes na Europa. Com este objectivo, em 1641 foi criado o Conselho da Guerra. Este órgão iria superintender a dinâmica de construção das obras de fortificações, designando à priori, não só, as cidades que se convertiam em Praças-Fortes, como também, a distribuição dos engenheiros militares nas diversas províncias. Paralelamente, em 1647, a Aula de Fortificação e Arquitectura Militar foi fundada em Lisboa, ensinando os conceitos teóricos aos técnicos portugueses de forma a prescindir da assistência dos engenheiros militares estrangeiros. As vilas e cidades portuguesas, que se localizavam junto à fronteira terrestre, foramaquelas que mais sofreram transformações no seu tecido urbano devido à construção das novas cinturas de muralhas, as quais levaram décadas a serem concluídas. A relação cidade-campo foi radicalmente alterada, assim como o desaparecimento do arrabalde como núcleo urbano adjacente à vila muralhada. O recinto medieval iria também transformar-se na cidadela do novo sistema de fortificação, onde as estruturas militares preferencialmente se instalavam. No século XVIII, os equipamentos militares, que representavam o poder central e apoiavam as guarnições instaladas nas cidades fortificadas, cresceram e invadiram o espaço público. Os Engenheiros Militares foram os técnicos ou artistas especializados em arquitectura militar, que ficaram encarregues das fortificações, dos projectos dos edifícios militares, e do traçado urbano das cidades denominadas Praças-Fortes, imprimindo conceitos urbanísticos que prevaleceram durante séculos.
The consolidation of the Modern State in the 17th and 18th centuries was linked to urban fortification theories. During this time, the Renaissance ideal city', which had been based on humanist and aesthetical principles, became a political weapon of the central power in order to control the Territory. Within this ideological framework, military architecture evolved and a new science emerged: Modern Fortification. Intrinsically related to ballistic development and basedon academic disciplines such as Mathematics and Geometry, this science prompted the creation of modern military engineering models. At its core stood two Cartesian principles: Practice should be regulated by Theory, whereas Theory should be corroborated and verified by Practice. The proliferation of Treatises on Modern Fortification revolutionized urban concepts to an extent that several European towns underwent reconstruction works. Within the State's defence policy, the purpose of the Fortified Town was to defend its surrounding urban area. Due to the new walls' complex nature and large territorial extension, the old urban area was restructured and a new military boundary was established. The theoretical model of the Fortified Town conveyed the increasing rationalist philosophy of the Modern Era and was based on Urban rules. However, its modern nature was especially expressed in the way it was employed, rather than solely in the way it was conceived. During the period of the restoration of the Portuguese crown (1640 1668), many governors felt the need to embrace this new political State ideology. By exercising diplomacy and modernizing their towns' fortification system according to European principles of the time, the recognition of the Monarchy's sovereignty was reinforced. To serve this purpose, a War Council was created in 1641. The aim of this legal body was to superintend military construction works, and decide beforehand which towns would be converted into Fortified Towns and which military engineers would be assigned to which provinces. Moreover, in 1647, a Military School was founded in Lisbon with the purpose of teaching the Portuguese technicians the necessary theoretical knowledge, in order to avoid the employment of foreign technicians. Among all the Portuguese towns, those that underwent more significant urban restructuring were those located next to land borders. In such cases, the new walls took decades to be built and the relation between town-country was radically altered as old towns' suburbs ceased to exist. In addition, the medieval enclosure would transform itself into the citadel, the place where military headquarters were stationed. In the 18th century, the military facilities, that represented the central power and supported the garrisons that were stationed in the fortified towns, grew and overlapped the public area. The Military Engineers were specialized architecture technicians that were not only responsible for the design of fortifications and military buildings, but also for the urban design of the Fortified Towns. Their importance laid in the urban concepts that they developed, which prevailed for centuries.
Description: Tese de doutoramento em História (História da Arte), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Letras, 2008
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10451/578
Appears in Collections:FL - Teses de Doutoramento

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